Another contribution to cognitive learning theory, which somewhat smudged the line between cognitive and behavioral learning theory, was the work of Edward Chance Tolman. Tolman was a behaviorist, but he was a purposive behaviorist McDougall, a, p. Tolman, a, pp. He defined purpose quite simply as persistence in behavior:. Purpose, adequately conceived, it will be held, is itself but an objective aspect of behavior.
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Every academic discipline, from literature and history to sociology and theology, has competing theories or schools of thought: perspectives from which to study the subject. Psychology, the study of the mind, has hundreds of theories and sub-theories, but the six main schools of thought are often the foundation for those new to the world of psychology. Functionalism has the most influence of any theory in contemporary psychology. Psychological functionalism attempts to describe thoughts and what they do without asking how they do it. For functionalists, the mind resembles a computer, and to understand its processes, you need to look at the software, which is what the mind does, without having to understand the hardware that includes the underlying how and why. According to Gestalt psychologists, the human mind works by interpreting data through various laws, rules or organizing principles, turning partial information into a whole.
It is one of the best known and widely credited counters to claims of artificial intelligence AI —that is, to claims that computers do or at least can someday might think. Nevertheless, computer simulation is useful for studying the mind as for studying the weather and other things. I do not understand a word of the Chinese stories. I have inputs and outputs that are indistinguishable from those of the native Chinese speaker, and I can have any formal program you like, but I still understand nothing. Searle offers rejoinders to these various replies.
The psychology of learning is a theoretical science that covers the various psychological theories that relate with learning. Throughout history, there has been many various psychological learning theories. Some take on a more behaviorist approach which focuses on inputs and reinforcements. Some psychological approaches, such as social constructivism , focus more on one's interaction with the environment and with others. Psychology of learning is also very applicable today.