Diabetes mellitus DM is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease CVD , which in turn represents the principal cause of disability and mortality in individuals with DM. The pathophysiological basis of this link is atherosclerosis, which accounts for the majority of CVD and it is accelerated by DM. However, conventional vascular risk factors e. Furthermore, while myocardial infarction MI and stroke are the most commonly investigated complications of DM, the associations of DM with other vascular disorders are for a large part unknown. Two recent large scale studies that thoroughly investigated the relationship between DM and the risk of CVD shed some light on this topic. A meta-analysis of studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration including data of , people without initial CVD evaluated the associations between DM and fasting plasma glucose FPG concentrations and a wide range of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes 2.
Mechanisms of diabetic complications
Complications of diabetes - Wikipedia
As the nurse taking care of the diabetic patient, you must know how to properly care for them, especially newly diagnosed diabetics. The nurses role include educating, assessing, planning, administering medications, and evaluating treatment. What do patients look like clinically? Patients are young and thin…. Due to this the patient starts to experience hyperinsulinemia which caused metabolic syndrome. Patients are overweight, it happens overtime, rare to have ketones remember issues with carb metabolism adult aged. Gestational : similar to type 2 diabetes where the cells are not receptive to insulin…typically goes away after birth.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults
Literature review on diabetes mellitus. Many different studies have made the observation that early adverse conditions are associated with diabetes and metabolic dysfunction later in life. In some studies, elective induction of labor for macrosomia was found to increase the rate of cesarean delivery without improvement in perinatal outcomes [ 42 , 47 ]. There is a rise in the levels of pregnancy-associated hormones like estrogen, progesterone, cortisol and placental lactogen in the maternal circulation [ 8 , 9 ] accompanied by an increasing insulin resistance. Fetal macrosomia is a common adverse infant outcome of GDM if unrecognized and untreated in time.
It is increasingly apparent that not only is a cure for the current worldwide diabetes epidemic required, but also for its major complications, affecting both small and large blood vessels. These complications occur in the majority of individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Among the most prevalent microvascular complications are kidney disease, blindness, and amputations, with current therapies only slowing disease progression. Impaired kidney function, exhibited as a reduced glomerular filtration rate, is also a major risk factor for macrovascular complications, such as heart attacks and strokes. There have been a large number of new therapies tested in clinical trials for diabetic complications, with, in general, rather disappointing results.