Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibers from wood , fiber crops , waste paper , or rags. Mixed with water and other chemical or plant-based additives, pulp is the major raw material used in papermaking and the industrial production of other paper products. Before the widely-acknowledged invention of papermaking by Cai Lun in China around AD, paper-like writing materials such as papyrus and amate were produced by ancient civilizations using plant materials which were largely unprocessed. Strips of bark or bast material were woven together, beaten into rough sheets, dried, and polished by hand.
Chemical Bonding Free Essay Example
Adhesive , also known as glue , cement , mucilage , or paste ,  is any non-metallic substance applied to one or both surfaces of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation. The use of adhesives offers certain advantages over other binding techniques such as sewing , mechanical fastenings , or welding. These include the ability to bind different materials together, the more efficient distribution of stress across a joint, the cost-effectiveness of an easily mechanized process, and greater flexibility in design. Disadvantages of adhesive use include decreased stability at high temperatures, relative weakness in bonding large objects with a small bonding surface area, and greater difficulty in separating objects during testing. Alternatively, they can be organized either by their starting physical phase or whether their raw stock is of natural or synthetic origin.
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